8th International Conference on
Computational Harmonic Analysis

September 12-16, 2022

Ingolstadt, Germany

"The implicit bias of learning linear neural networks"

Rauhut, Holger

Deep neural networks are usually trained by minimizing a non-convex loss functional via (stochastic) gradient descent methods. Unfortunately, the convergence properties are not very well-understood. Moreover, a puzzling empirical observation is that learning neural networks with a number of parameters exceeding the number of training examples often leads to zero loss, i.e., the network exactly interpolates the data. Nevertheless, it generalizes very well to unseen data, which is in stark contrast to intuition from classical statistics which would predict a scenario of overfitting. A current working hypothesis is that the chosen optimization algorithm has a significant influence on the selection of the learned network. In fact, in this overparameterized context there are many global minimizers so that the optimization method induces an implicit bias on the computed solution. It seems that gradient descent methods and their stochastic variants favor networks of low complexity (in a suitable sense to be understood), and, hence, appear to be very well suited for large classes of real data. Initial attempts in understanding the implicit bias phenomen considers the simplified setting of linear networks, i.e., (deep) factorizations of matrices. This has revealed a surprising relation to the field of low rank matrix recovery (a variant of compressive sensing) in the sense that gradient descent favors low rank matrices in certain situations. Moreover, restricting further to diagonal matrices, or equivalently factorizing the entries of a vector to be recovered, leads to connections to compressive sensing and l1-minimization. After giving a general introduction to these topics, the talk will concentrate on results by the speaker on the convergence of gradient flows and gradient descent for learning linear neural networks and on the implicit bias towards low rank and sparse solutions.

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